Daily mirror 2007/05/16
Are three wheelers really cost effective?
I write to bring to your notice the shocking expenditure the state and the tax
payers of this country are called upon to bear as a result of negligent and
careless use of our roads.
While visiting a patient at the National Hospital, I noticed a patient with all
his limbs in plaster an even his jaw had shifted- the result of a three wheeler
The front wheel of the three-wheeler taxi had come of and the man had suffered
extensive injuries which will keep him at the national Hospital for at least
three months. The orthopedic problems caused by road accident can be minimized
if we have a better safety policy.
The doctors told me that the surgical steel prosthetics and the nuts and bolt
alone will cost well over half a million rupees.
This is money that will be paid by the government and eventually all the tax
payers of the country. The salaries of medical staff, the cost of
hospitalization and other charges to the state will be in addition to the half a
million rupees of tax payer’s money this man with gobble up.
I do not grudge the treatment of an accident victim, but there is a largest
issue of road safety that we should address if we are to spend money on
education, buying desks and chairs for our children, improving our roads,
electricity, irrigation etc. I am told treating these victims, mostly those
involved in some from accident with a three-wheeler cost a huge amount of money
for the health department. Have there been any safety criteria before we allowed
these dangerous vehicles on our roads?
At first glance, the three-wheelers may seem a cheaper mode of transport, but
the entire country is paying a very high price for it.
Over to you, Transport Minister., Transport Minister.
The island, Tuesday 6th March, 2007
Two-stroke trishaws in Sri Lanka
In view of the current debate and controversy over the operation of 2-stroke
engine 3-wheelers in Sri Lanka, we have thought it pertinent to express some of
our views as the manufacturer of 2-stoke engine Bajaj 3-wheelers.
At the outset, we would like to clarify that Bajaj produce 2-stroke gasoline,
2-stroke LPG, 2-stoke CNG, 4-stoke CNG as also diesel 3-wheelers, which are used
for both passenger and goods applications. The entire above product are marketed
in India and many other countries.
The Indian emission regulation history has evolved, on a very sound basis and
the emission norms which came into effect in 1991 have progressively been
tightened in 1996, in 200 and in 2005. The next stage of norms are likely to
come into effect from, 2010, the current norms in India are among the tightest
in the world.
Bajaj 3 wheelers have continuously improved over the said period to meet the
emission norms cited above. The company supplies a range of its 3-wheelers to
many countries outside of India.
It is not true that Bajaj sells its 2-stroke 3-wheelers only to Sri Lanka.
Almost 55% of our domestic three-wheeler sales in India are made up of 2-stroke
3-wheelers. We also export our 2-stroke 3-wheelers to Sudan, Nigeria, Peru,
Somalia, Tanzania, etc.
It is our strong belief that air quality needs to be improved and environmental
pollution concerns need to be addressed. It is also our strong belief that most
governmental agencies are not equipped to fully understand the various product
technologies. As such, they should restrict their domain to mandating the
desired norms developed along with industry and other relevant entities, leaving
the choice of technology to the vehicle manufactures.
Further, it is implementation friendly & desirable to draw a road map for
attacking this air quality problem so that efforts of all agencies can be
aligned to the road map. For example, the vehicle manufactures, component
manufactures, the oil industry, the petro products dispensing infrastructure for
various for various fuels, etc. should be involved to develop a holistic
approach which is more successful than one-off mandates. India has effectively
followed this approach. To cite another example, EU also devised its road map
from Euro-I norms from 1992 onwards in practical stage ensuring that all
concerned agencies align to these norms and the targets are laid out.
The Indian authorities have understood the importance of neither mandating nor
banning particular technologies. In fact, this has allowed us to further our
research on 2-stroke as well as 4-strokes. Today’s 2-stroke engines, in terms of
emission performance and fuel efficiency, are far superior to what they were a
few years back.
In the next stage of evolution norms, we anticipate that electronic control and
engine management will come into play. Once this happens on a mass scale, we are
able to further optimize the 2-stroke in terms of emission and performance (by
electronically controlling combustion cycles and optimizing) while retaining the
specific inherent benefits of 2-strokes like less number of parts, better power
to weight ratio, lower initial and maintenance cost, etc, in fact. We are at the
pre-mass testing stage on our 2-stroke direct` injection 3-wheelers in India.
Given the current norms, the relative deference between 2-stroke and 4-stroke.
Technologies from emission angle are marginal any way. It will be counter
productive if such cutting edge research were ...to be abandoned on account of
any illogical banning of specific technologies by governmental authorities.
While 2-stroke is significantly more efficient in CO and NOx emission, 4-stroke
are more efficient in HC emission. But the differentials are in a smaller band,
given the strict norms.
You will find that above table that the 2-stroke engines are good and well
within the current norms. If may also be noted that Bajaj 2-stroke
three-wheelers also confirm to the mask emission standards in India as per tests
conducted by the automotive research association of India, which is mandatory
for all manufactures in India. We may also inform you that our results in the
case of our new direct injection 2-stroke three-wheelers are yielding even
CO 7.0 g/km
HC 1.5 g/km
NOx 0.4 g/km
CO 2.25 g/km
HC + NOx 2.0 g/km
TUV test data
CO 0.77 g/km
HC 1.14 g/km
NOx 0.05 g/km
It may be interesting to note that the usage of CNG and LPG as alternate fuels.
In many Indian cities, mainly to eradicate the adulteration pollution load
reduction. These are the initiatives where the Government can play a strong
Bajaj is conscious of its role in providing environmentally friendly technology
to the world and as and when Bajaj has changed products/technology for better
environmental performance in India, the same improved products have been
supplied also to Sri Lanka so indirectly, Sri Lanka has benefited from the
substantial tightening of norms in India.
While the emission norms apply to newly manufactured products, it is the vehicle
pollution, of varying vintage on the roads that primarily accounts for the
emission lord and air quality. India has also developed good models for
addressing the vehicle park issue. Since the 3-wheelers specially are product
which give self employment, and serve as breadwinners for many poor middle class
families, the Indian authorities have device innovate schemes coupled with
reasonable time lines-for upgrading the vehicle park without affecting the
social fabric. For example in cities like Mumbai, Pune, etc. vehicle over the
specified age(8 years in case of Mumbai, 15 years in case of Pune and so on) are
to be retrofitted with LPG/CNG(as the case may be) or are to be replace with new
once. Delhi government as provided some tax incentives to facilitate the change
over to CNG as it did for all other commercial vehicles. (Even Delhi did not ban
2-strokes, and but only mandated CNG use.) In the case of two wheelers, Italy a
system of trade-ins and tax sops for modernizing its fleet. This was given at
the time of economic down turn and hence aided industrial recovery as well, by
generating demand. Sri Lanka can benefit from such time tested practice in EU
and in India.
Sanjiv Bajaj Executive Director,
Bajaj Auto Ltd,
Daily news 03/03/2007
Why two stroke three-wheelers should be banned
Whilst the intended ban for health reasons is by itself sufficient to hold back
the further import of these two-stroke three-wheelers, there is also another
serious problem caused by these three-wheeler drivers. They openly violate
traffic regulations on the highways, and virtually do not care a damn for other
users on the roads. They openly violate the observances of the traffic light,
rules for one way, etc. on the high ways. Most of these drivers move right in
the centre of the road, even some times without any passengers, preventing the
smooth working of the highways. At the roundabouts when other vehicle drivers
slow down to give way to traffic on the right, we find the three-wheeler driver
from behind creeping in through the space provided for right of way to other
vehicles to pass through, and causing problems to the vehicles who are ready to
move on. This constitutes a real danger to car drivers as the three-wheelers
creeps in between vehicles and attempts to speed off. If the car driver is not
watchful, he will certainly crash into three-wheeler as he attempts to creep
through. This is common occurrence on the highways.
Whilst about 10 to 15 percent are fair and reasonable, most of the other
three-wheeler drivers cause grave problems to other motorist on the highway.
They cannot be controlled and even turn abusive often when peoples try to
correct them. Really most of the three-wheeler drivers are a menace on the
highways and cause a grave danger to other motorists. Certain parts are removed
by the three-wheeler drivers to enable them to cut and swerve, and ass a result
you find the three-wheeler driver cutting fine by you and marking his way. Even
the side plate of the three-wheelers to prevent a passenger from getting off, is
taken of the vehicle, and any one trying to move from the right of the
three-wheeler may find himself in grave danger, if he is over-run by and
Whilst the association of three-wheeler drivers is writing so much of the
problem resulting from the ban-which are only imaginary-one wonders what the
association has been doing all this time. What attempt has it made to discipline
its drivers, see that they observe the rules of the high- ways- are not abusive.
They have just said nothing or done nothing about marking its drivers observe of
traffic rules is this country-violating all the traffic laws that are
prevailing. Stopping in the centre of the road to pick up and drop passengers,
thereby preventing the smooth floor of traffic. They even park on narrow roads,
causing enough problems to the pedestrians.
Let us look at this whole problem practically and in the greater interests of
the country. Today we have enough and more 2-stroke three-wheelers country.
Three-wheelers are just park waiting for hires. The three-wheeler drivers
themselves say that there is a drop in income and they all attribute it to the
excessive number of three-wheelers in this country. When you look around one is
more than convents that there are enough and more three-wheelers in this country
and really we do not any more. What we have is enough more to provide transport
at the cheapest cost which the three-wheelers are doing, particularly for the
poor, who cannot afford taxies etc. More three-wheelers will also mean further
problem for the country, where traffic has virtually ground to a halt. We often
find three-wheelers just going empty and preventing other vehicles from moving
ahead. It is obstructing the free floor of traffic and causing further traffic
jam. A reduction in the number of the vehicles is what the country needs today.
When we have enough and more three-wheelers –a number just lying idle-do we need
to import any further three-wheelers with the two-stroke engines where we have
enough more also because of the health hazards our peoples are exposed to?
As it stands therefore, no serious problems will be caused by the intended ban
on the two-stroke engine fitted to three-wheelers in the future. There is
employment of the present three-wheeler drivers for a fair period of time. There
are enough and more three-wheelers of this type to provide for the needs of our
people-with thousands of three-wheelers even lying idle. The country certainly
does not need any more of these three-wheelers. It also needs to be concerned
about the health hazards to which our people could be exposed to. The problems
on our highways-where traffic has virtually ground to a halt. Whilst solving the
health problems, it will also be able to ride the highways of its grave problems
by the reduction of vehicles.
A lot of financial interests are stake. Billons have been made through the
import of these vehicles, and naturally these sources are fighting hard to keep
the imports going. Even lending companies seem to be buying something like 50 or
more vehicle monthly and offering easy credit terms. The resistance is not
coming other than from the sources that will stand to loss so much if the ban
comes in to operations.
In the greater interest of the country and its people that the government should
go ahead with the ban and not go down pressure from interested sources. It
should stand firm and do what is right by the country and its people.
The Sunday times April 22 2007
Save us from this three-wheeler mafia
One has heard of the pharmaceutical mafia, the medical mafia, the educational
mafia but perhaps not of the three-wheeler mafia that has just emerged as a
I am and 82 year old pensioner, entirely dependent on three-wheelers for
mobility. Every time I engage one, my already weekend heart stutters a bit not
only because of the physical risk involved but due to the end result of a fair
that can very with the whim and fancy of the driver.
I live 2 to 3km from town- the metered fair involved is Rs.100 to Rs. 200. I
dare not argue for I have been subjected to insults and near assault several
times. I have spoken to many drivers to say that the installation of a meter
would not only be mutually beneficial but also increase their customer base and
most of them seem to agree- but who is to bell the cat?
So how about the honorable minister or ministers? Could you not help both
three-wheel operators and the now exploited public by marking it compulsory for
all three-wheelers to run on a metered fair or would you concept of democracy
make you not interfere in the free running exploitation of the three-wheel
Daily mirror Tuesday February 27 2007
Three-wheelers petition: committee to review decision
When the fundamental rights violation petition challenging the purported cabinet
decision to ban the importation of 2-stroke three-wheelers as well as its
spear-parts came up before the Supreme Court on Wednesday, deputy solicitor
general informed court that a committee had been appointed to review about the
She moved for time to obtain further instruction, in the circumstances, the
Bench comprising Justices Shirani.A.Bandaranayake, Andrew Somawansa and the
Balapatabendi re-fixed the matter for support on March 22.
Three-wheeler drivers also alleged that the purported decision of the Cabinet
was based on collateral consideration, which might have been a result of
misleading information furnished by wasted interest that were likely to benefit
from the implementation of the ban.
All Island Three-Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association in its petition sited
central environmental authority, its chairman Karunasena Hettiarachi,
Commissioner of motor traffic B. Wijerathne, environment and natural resource
Ministry Secretary M.A.R.D. Jayathilaka, David Peiris Motor Company Ltd,
Secretary to the Cabinet D.Wijesinghe, Members of the Cabinet and the Attorney
General as respondents.
They are inter alias asking the court to direct the relevant respondents to take
steps to implement regular resting of motor vehicles of all classes and
categories to secure effective and meaningful compliance with the vehicular
emission standards lawfully required to be met.
The Island 26/02/2007
Trishaw operators accept challenge
My challenge to Mendis is to demonstrate his claim that two stroke engine
three-wheelers excessively pollute the air with row gasoline and engine oil
particle and his statement that the moving parts 2-stroke engine move at twice
the sped of 4-stroke engines, and hence their wear and tear is twice as past.
Mendis can contact me c/o of the “All Island Three-Wheeler Drivers Welfare
Association at No 19/4,Carmel Rd, Kollupitiya, Colombo 03”, to fix a mutually
convenient date, time and menu for him to demonstrate his claims to my
membership and my self. While my membership and I shall glade you provide
vehicles for the demonstration, Mendis will have to bring his own human
volunteers for the rather unconventional test procedure advocated by him, which
is tantamount to gassing of human beans akin to the manner in which stray
canines are exterminated by some municipalities.
Having belittled our vehicles now our colleagues by suggesting that we be human
guinea pigs in a weird experiment, Mendis also insults my intelligence by
adverting to a ghost writer who is penning article for me. Notwithstanding, I
categorically state that Mendis is wrong in his claim on the contents and extent
of pollution from 2-stroke engine, and hence their wear and tear is twice as
past and that 2-sroke engine three-wheelers are banned in India. However eagerly
await Mendis to prove me wrong through the gassing of his human volunteers and
other such measures he might adopt during his demonstration.
All Island Three-Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association.
The Island 22/02/2007
Trishaw ban…the voice of the voiceless
We are indeed beholden to Mr. Lalith Dharmasekara, President, and All Island
Three- Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association, for his very scientific and logical
explanation as regards 2-stroke trishaws. As the word 2-stroke and 4-stroke is
involved the 4-stroke would have greater oil consumption. In my study tours of
India, the trishaws I travel around in have 2-stroke engines and there is no ban
on 2-stroke trishaws in India. 2-stroke trishaws are ubiquitous in India. This
ban may be a strategy to displays 2-stroke trishaws produce by Bajaj Company to
permit a 4-stroke trishaws importer to have a field day. The new environmental
minister should contact the Bajaj Company of India and the scientific
institution of India and get a clarification on the issue.
PPollution is caused not by 2-stroke trishaws, but by belching buses and Lorries.
The environmental minister should not discriminate against the poor 2-stroke
trishaw operators who without becoming and economic burden on the country are
self-employed and providing cheap transport services to the less-privileged
millions. The chief importer of trishaws messes. David Peiris and company should
rice in support of the 2-stroke trishaw operators, and not allow charlatans to
defame and disparage 2-stroke trishaws. If India has not banned 2-stroke
trishaws why should Sri Lanka do so? Sri Lanka is a country where minions try to
become experts and scientists. Let me again congratulate Mr. Lalith Dharmasekara
for his challenge to Mr. Mendis for an open air particle investigation on the
The Island Wednesday 21ST February 2007
Trishaw ban and that challenge
Thank you for devoting so much space to the debate on the forthcoming ban on
2-stroke engines. Your newspaper highest provided a free platform for opposing
views. We are all entitled to our own opinions, but we are not entitled to ‘our
Just before my field of education was mechanical engineering, today you do not
need to take my word, for that of the obvious ghost writer behind the
three-wheeler driver’s welfare association. A was amount of scientific research
is available to the public and I invite the Island newspaper to commission
transport and engineering experts to enlighten your readers on the merits
demerits of 2-stroke engines why they should have been banned along time ago.
Make no mistake, 4-stroke engines are also polluting, but less so compared to
the cheaply made 2-stroke engines fitted to Bajaj three-wheelers.
I gladly take up the challenge of the three-wheeler driver’s association
president, or the person who is penning the articles on his behalf, to prove
that 2-stroke engine is far more polluting than and equivalent 4-stroke machine.
TThe three-wheeler driver’s association, I am sure, will provide volunteers for
this test which can be carried out very easily. Here is how we do it.
I am marking a link from howstuffworks.com (a widely accepted authority) to
explain in simple language the different between 2-stroke engine and 4-stroke
once htpp://scince.howstuffworks.com/two-stroke6.htm you may have seen the
latest statement from the Bajaj Company saying they are not unduly worried about
the 2-stroke ban in Sri Lanka.
- Take to healthy members of the three-wheeler driver’s association (according to
president of the association, all three-wheeler drivers are in pristine health
and have no known respiratory problems)
- Connect exhaust fumes from a 2-stroke three-wheeler to a confined space with no
- Connect exhaust fumes from a 4-stroke three-wheeler (of the same vintage and
approximately the same mileage) to a confined space similar to the space
- Send the two three-wheeler drivers to the respective confined space and start
both engines at the same time. Keep the motors running. Check with drivers
They face a similar ban in Egypt and now send only 4-stroke machine that
country. Nepal and the all the big metropolitan cities in India have banned
2-stroke engine vehicles. That is a fact. Not my opinion.
Now hear is my opinion I believe that the ban on 2-stroke engine vehicles will
not hit any three-wheeler driver. It cannot. Because the ban will not apply to
existing three-wheeler there is no move to stop the import of three-wheelers.
Daily News Friday January 05 2007
Importation of 2-stroke three-wheelers to be stopped
Colombo: the government is to stop the importation of 2-stroke three-wheelers
owing to the harmful effect they have the environment.
Environment and Natural Resources Minister Maitripala Sirisena said he has
presented a cabinet memorandum seeking a ban on the importation of 2-stroke
three-wheelers which have vastly contributed to air pollution especially in the
“Once the proposal is approved, we will allow only 4-stroke three-wheeler to be
brought to the country. It has been scientifically proven that the pollutants
released to the air by 4-stroke trishaws are less.”
AAccording to the Central environmental Authority, over 90 percent of
three-wheeler used in Sri Lanka are 2-stroke the marginally higher price of the
4-stroke kind has led more people to opt for the 2-stroke three-wheeler.
Daily mirror 19/02/2007
3-wheeler drivers seek legal redress
The All Island Three-Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association yesterday file a
fundamental rights violation petition challenging the purported Cabinet decision
to ban the importation of 2-stroke three-wheelers as well as spare-parts.
The association alleged that the purported decision of the Cabinet was based on
collateral considerations, which might have been the result of misleading
information furnished by vested interests that were likely to benefit from the
implementation of the ban.
The All Island Three-Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association (AITDWA) in its
petition file through Attorney- at- law Mohan Balendra cited the Central
Environmental Authority, its Chairman Karunasena Hettiarachchi, Commissioner of
Motor Traffic B.Wijayarathne, Environment and Natural Resources Ministry
Secretary M.A.R.D.Jayathilaka, David Peiris Motor Company Ltd, Secretary of the
Cabinet and the Attorney General as respondents.
They are inter alias asking Court to direct the relevant respondents to take
step to implement regular testing of Motor Vehicles of all classes and
categories to secure effective and meaningful complains with the vehicular
emission standards lawfully required to be met. They state that large
percentages (90%) of three-wheeler drivers are owners of only of 2-stroke
They further state all motor vehicles are capable contributing to environmental
degradation through excessively pollutant vehicular exhaust emissions, and that
bigger vehicles such as busses, lorries, trucks, vans and cars contribute much
more to environmental pollution ban three-wheelers.
They state that a salutary move was taken to regulate vehicular exhaust emission
standards by implementing of the environmental (Air emission, fuel and vehicle
importation standards) Regulation of 2003.
They state for the meaningful realization of the ends of the said regulations,
the regular monitoring of vehicular exhaust emissions, at least annually-prier
to the issue of renewal of vehicle Revenue Licenses of all vehicles is
They content that the implementation of the purported measure base on the
Cabinet decision is unreasonable, arbitrary, ad hoc, irrational, illegal and /or
They complain that there are 318,659 three-wheeler drivers who have 860,379
dependants, all of who will be affected by the ban on a national basis.
They allege that the purported decision of the Cabinet involved classification
of 2-stroke engine three-wheelers to the exclusion of other classes of motor
vehicles drivers, users and owners.
The Sunday Times
Sunday February 18th 2007
The new Minister for environment, under some pressure it seems, has decided to
appoint a committee to look in to the fallout on the recent Government decision
to ban 2-stroke three-wheelers. It was indeed a bold step for the Government
which prides in calling itself a People’s Government, to take in the first
place-inviting the displeasure of several hundreds of three-wheel owners and the
wroth of a lobby that was wielding some political clout-in the larger national
The ban was effected because of the emission s there from which are proved as
being hazardous to the air that the citizenry, especially the young, inhale.
The single main exporter of these three-wheelers to Sri Lanka, very much the
common Mans Rolls Royce, is the Bajaj Company in India. In a statement they have
issued (It appears in the financial Times on Sunday section,) they have said
that Sri Lanka is not the only country to which they have exported these
vehicles, and they go on to list the other countries-Sudan, Tanzania, Nigeria,
Somalia and Peru. They also say that 55 percent of India’ domestic sales
comprise of these 2-stroke three- wheelers.
It was unfortunate that both the UNP and the JVP joined hands in raising the ban
as an issue in Parliament. Clearly, it is the role of the Opposition to speak on
behalf of the aggrieved, on issues where the Government is straying from the
They have tried to garner some support for themselves from among the community
of three-wheel owners, but in the process they have ignored the cry of the
majority, especially the children of this country whom. Health authorities have
confirmed, have been increasingly subjected to respiratory complications,
especially asthma, due to unclean air- especially in the big cities.
Undoubtedly these three-wheelers are not the only cause of air impurities and
environmental pollution. The Bajaj Company itself points out that vehicle
manufacturer, component manufacturers, the oil industry and petrol products must
be looked into.
In India, the usage of alternate fuels to eradicate the chronic problem of
adulterated gasoline has already come into force.
Surely, Sri Lanka dose not want to be another Sudan or Somalia- or like certain
states of India.
The Sunday Times February 18th 2007
Bajaj claims it sells 2-stroke trishaws to ‘many countries’
The Indian markers of the popular Bajaj trishaws this week reputed claims that
the company sells its 2-stroke, three-wheelers only to Sri Lanka.
“Almost 55% of domestic three-wheeler sales in India are made up of 2-stroke
three-wheelers. We also export our 2-stroke three-wheelers to Sudan, Nigeria,
Peru, Somalia, Tanzania, etc. said Sanjiv Bajaj, executive director, Bajaj auto
Ltd, India in a statement.
Responding to the current debate over three-wheelers in Sri Lanka and plans to
ban the 2-stroke version in the future, the company said with three-wheelers
specially been products which give self-employment and serve as breadwinners for
many poor middle class families, Indian authorities have devised innovate
schemes couples with reasonable time lines, for upgrading the vehicle park
without effecting the social fabric. The company suggested Sri Lanka also follow
The statement, expressing company views as the manufacturer of 2-stroke engine
Bajaj three-wheelers, said Bajaj produce 2-stroke gasoline, 2-stroke LPG,
2-stroke CNG, 4-stroke gasoline, 4-stroke LPG, 4-stroke CNG, as also diesel
three-wheelers, which are used for both passenger and goods applications. All
the above products are marketed in India and many other countries the company
The Indian emission regulation history as involved on a very sound basis and the
emission norms which came into effect in 1991 have progressively been tightened
in 1996, in 2000 and in 2005. The next stage of norms is likely to come into
effect from 2010. The current norms in India are among the tightest in the
Bajaj 3 wheelers have continuously improved over the said period to meet the
emission cited above. The company supplies a range a range of its 3-wheelers to
many countries outside of India, the statement said.
“It is our strong belief that air quality needs to be improved and environmental
pollution concerns need to addressed .It is also our strong belief that most
governmental agencies are not equipped to fully understand the various product
technologies. As such, they should restrict their domain to mandating the
desired norms developed along with industry and other relevant entities, leaving
the choice of technology to the vehicle manufacturers,” the statement said.
Daily mirror Friday September 1, 2006
Trishaws With meters in town
A voluntary initiative by All Island Three Wheeler Driver’s Association
By: Ruwan jayasinghe
The merciless burns busy Bambalapitiya Vicinity Here is no Shelter to hide from
the burning Sun, but only a Kottamba tree which quenches the thirst of
Shelter-Something For free in this city! Lalith Dharmasena, bearded man arranges
his face with a nice smile all the time and waits for his customers .His
uniform, the blue Shirt and the black trouser, makes him standout from the
others. Every one knows him. He’s pretty special for a’ man in the city’. Who is
Lalith Dharmasena? Why is he special? How has he become familiar with every one?
Laith Dharmasena is the pioneer the metered trishaw service, which is very new
to Sri Lanka.
‘We couldn’t find any progress in this service because of the three wheeler
charges varied from person to person, trishaw to trishaw earlier,’ Lalith says.
He opted to the three wheeler service when he had to play the role of a natural
bread winner. He has his own trishaw and started picking and dropping people
from place to place. There is lot of competition between three-wheeler drivers
as there are lot of three-wheelers in the city. So, our income was reduced and
we had to find a new way of earning in order to sustain, he said.
When the cost of living went higher and higher, people stopped using trishaws
because of their high cost. So, Lalith and others missed their hires and were
really disappointed on where the business could go.
On the other hand the fuel prices are skyrocketing and they couldn’t find a
possibility of earning at least the fuel charge from their customers.
First he thought of giving up this job and finding another. Deep in his heart
there was always the yearning to have his own business. So, he tried to find
some new ways to get good income through the trishaw service. Then the India
concept of metered trishaw service grabbed his attention, which is very popular
amongst the Indians.
He next thought was how to introduce a metered trishaw service in Sri Lanka.
It was big challenge for Lalith at that time but he managed to over come it. As
the president of the All Island Three Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association,
Lalith received the help of the other members too.
“First we ordered only two trishaw taxi meters for our own use. And that turned
as the very first step of introducing trishaw taxi meters to Sri Lanka,” said
Those two taxi meters worked well and then they got 22 meters and used them in
the Colombo region. They ran their newly invented metered trishaws in Kotahena,
Wellawaththa, Bambalpitiya, and Kollupitiya. This taxi service showed a rapid
progress and earned them a lot of money.
“There was an awful competition between three-wheelers lots of three-wheelers in
the city. So, our income was drowned and we had to find a new way of earning,”
The tiny digital automatic equipment changed the lives of Lalith and others by
giving a good service.
“It has cost around Rs10, 000 for each driver to fix it in their three wheelers.
Thi9s taxi meter is very helpful for both the customer and the driver. It shows
the complete charge for the hire, number of hires, the profit per day and the
distance traveled,” explained.
The charges are very reasonable. The metered trishaw charge is Rs. 30 for the
first kilometer and Rs.22 per kilometer, there after Rs. 90/= as waiting charges
per hour. They charge 15% more during the night between 10 pm to 5 am.
“That’s why people ask for our service. The charges are very fair and the
service is superior,” he said; in a voice of a very satisfied man.
The fierce sun’s rays and the heavy rains are the rains are the blessings for
his livelihood. People do not want to get burnt or get wet, they want to avoid
these hazards and hurry to their homes. So the easiest way to do this is by
joining Lalith’s metered trishaw service.
The other most important characteristic in this metered trishaw service is that
they are all equipped with mobile phones. So, anyone can call them at any time
they need. If one is not available, then they would contact one of the members
in their group and provide the customer a quick transport service.
Unfortunately some three-wheeler drivers believe hat this is a hoax and have
given it up. But Lalith and the other nine members realized that it is not a but
a good way for them to earn to living.
“Now, I do not have any fear about my family’s future. I have a permanent
livelihood and I know it will make my life easy,” Lalith concluded.
He reached his goal, got the trust of his clients and in turn taught a good
lesson on how to create the path to success by overcoming all obstacles that
stood in his way.
Pix by Pradeep Pathirana
Daily News 08/02/07
Demand for two stroke three wheeler high despite 2008 ban
TRI-SHAW: local three-wheeler manufacturers and distributors say two stroke
three wheeler sales have not gone down despite the government deciding to ban
two stroke three wheelers from 2008
David Pieris Motor Company Limited (DPMC) the franchised distributor in Sri
Lanka for Bajaj three wheelers said the demand for two stroke three wheelers has
not declined despite the Government’s decision to ban import of two stroke three
wheelers. A couple of years bake the DPMC introduced fore stroke three wheelers
to Sri Lanka.
A company spokesman told Daily News that their fore stroke market is also
The company also said there is a technical possibility of converting two stroke
engines to a four stroke engine.
Chairmen/ Chief Executive Director of Alba Group of Companies M. Y. M. Nassar
told Daily News there is no decline in demand for the two stroke three wheelers
at the moment.
“It is a good move that the Government has taken since the world is moving
towards four stroke engines, Nassar said.
They are also keen on converting to four stroke three-wheelers. “But the
government needs to provide financial assistance for us.”
“Converting to four strokes is a huge investment and we need a huge backup from
the government,” Nassar said.
Specialized mechanics are needed for repairing four stroke three-wheelers and
there is a dearth of mechanics who are specialized in this sector.
The Government also needs to focus on training these mechanics too, he said.
Government also needs to consider the three-wheeler drivers who have made it
their main source of income, he said.
Meanwhile Minister of Environment Patali Champika Ranawaka told Parliament
recently as a relief measure the Ministry wills concessionary credit facilities
for two stroke three wheelers into four strokes.
According to the registrar of Motor Vehicle (RMV) last month 4,294 petrol three
wheelers and 41 diesel three wheelers were registered at the R.M.V. most of them
are two strokes. Normally there are over 4,000 three- wheeler registrations per
month at the R.M.V. and there was no significant decline in three-wheeler
registrations after the Government’s decision, an official of the R.M.V. said.
TThere are 318,000 three-wheelers in Sri Lanka and most of them are two-stroke.
The Government decided to ban the import of two stroke three-wheelers with
effect from 2008 to minimize air pollution. Four stroke three-wheelers are
recommended by the government instead.
Daily Mirror, Saturday, January 27, 2007
AITWDWA warns legal action if three-wheeler ban is not revoked
By Zazna Jihan
The All Island Three Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association told the government
that they would file a lawsuit against the banning of two stroke three wheelers
and take a holiday to conduct an island wide programme to inform the public of
the injustice meted out to them.
Speaking at a press conference held at the Pearl City Hotel, Bambalapitiya, the
President of the association, Lalith Dharmasekara Vithanage, said that this ban
has nothing to do with air pollution “This is only an attempt to wipe out the
entire generation of the three wheel drivers. This shows the deplorable conduct
of some ministers, who are trying to deprive us of our means of livelihood,” he
“Is this is the kind of solutions they promised in Mahinda Chinthanaya,”he asked
and added “In Mahinda Chinthanaya they promised to solve our problems, but it
seems they are going to do just the opposite and deprive us of our livelihood,”
He explained that it is not the two stroke three wheelers that pollute the air,
but it is the two-stroke engine, officials are unable to differentiate between
the two-stroke engine and the two stroke three wheelers. “Boats, Lawn movers and
small scooters also use two stroke engines, but the officials believe it’s only
the two stroke three wheelers that are polluting the air,”Vithanage said.
HHe also pointed out that due to mixing engine oil with petrol for three wheelers
the air is being polluted. Two-stroke engine oil called ‘2T’ is not being sold
in filling stations in Sri Lanka. He demanded the officials implement the
regulations relating to three wheelers, which were drafted in 1999, and then
start discussing about air pollution. “They are not implementing these
regulations, and this clearly shows the attitude towards three wheeler drivers,”
The Sunday Leader, AUGUST 5, 2007
Trishaw fares up from end August
THE All Island Three Wheeler Drivers Welfare Association (AITWDWA) will increase
taxi fares if the government cannot control the price of 2T oil in the market.
Trishaw drivers will increase taxi fares by Rs.2 pre kilometer by the August if
the government fails to bring down the price of 2T oil.
The AITWDWA at present charge Rs.40 for the first kilometer and then Rs.25 per
kilometer. At a meeting held on Monday (30) Trade, Marketing Development,
Cooperatives and Consumer services minister Bandula Gunawardana has promised to
solve the problem faced by the trishaw drivers.
Speaking to the Sunday Leader, President, AITWDWA, Lalith Dharmasekara said at
present 30ml of 2Toil is sold at Rs.10. “We have to mix one liter of petrol with
30ml of 2T oil for atr4ishaw. There is no fixed rate for 2T oil in the market.
The government need to look into this matter and implement a law where all
dealers sell 2T oil at the same rate,” Dharmasekara said.
According the Dharmasekara all members of the association run on a taximeter
system and are in demand among customers.
“When the government increased the fuel prices we did not increase taxi fare
because we wanted to give our customers a good service. But with the recent
increase in fuel prices we cannot run at the old rate. We have to depend on the
trishaw hires to live,” Dharmasekara said.
Daily Mirror, Thursday, February 08, 2007
Three wheeler owners plight brought up in Parliament
By Kelum Bandara and Yohan Perera
Minister of Environment, Paatali Champika Ranawaka, who made his maiden speech
in Parliament yesterday upon being sworn in as an MP, said the final statement
he made in Parliament in 2001, had also been about the environment. He said
destiny had played a big part in his parliamentary life, in this manner.
Ranawaka made this point, replying to UNP MP Dayasiri Jayasekera, who presented
an adjournment motion in the House, requesting the government to reconsider the
ban on three wheelers with two stroke engines and spare parts of such vehicles.
He assured Parliament that the government would not implement the ban overnight,
but would do so gradually. In this context he said the ban on importing two
stroke engines will be imposed from 2008, and the ban on importing spare parts
would come into effect only in 2011. He explained that a subsidy will be paid to
owners of three wheelers with two stroke engines. “We are prepared to talk to
these three wheeler owners at any time,” Ranawaka said indicating that he
favours a negotiated settlement to the issue. He also pledged to introduce new
vehicle emission procedures and to introduce effective oil refinery systems.
PPresenting the motion UNP Kurunegala District MP Dayasiri Jayasekera said over
300,000 such three wheeler owners have been badly affected by the government’s
decision. “Please reconsider this decision,” he said. JVP MP Sunil Handunhetti,
who also had reservations on the issue called on the government to provide some
relief to three wheeler owners through state banks. He also called on the
government to impose the ban gradually. “Imposing the ban suddenly is like
striking a blow to the head with a pole,” he pointed out
Thursday, 2 August 2007
Debate under way on fuel subsidy
Manjula Fernando and Nadira Gunatilleke
COLOMBO: An internal debate is currently on among State stakeholder to determine
as to whom should be provided additional fuel relief to help cushion the effect
of the recent price hike.
Media Minister Lakshman Yapa Abeywardena said yesterday they were now discussing
the sectors that should be included in the fuel subsidy, as they were aware the
recent oil price hike has made a significant effect on certain sectors.
TThe groups under consideration include fishermen, three-wheeler owners, etc. It
was revealed once the law to fix three-wheeler meters is in place the
three-wheeler owners are set to receive a fuel subsidy.
Ravaya, August 05, 2007
Three wheeler rally
By senake samarasingha
To get fuel subside from government All Island Three Wheeler Drivers Welfare
Association to organize a huge demonstration rally. “About 10% of the total
population of the country depends on this sector and this sector should be
protected by the government , even after 28 years they failed to implemented
proper mechanism to manage and a practical fuel subside , these are the main
points for the demonstration rally “ AITWDWA President Lalith Darmasekara said.
This is the 19th occasion the petrol price amendment now the price is Rs.117 and
the increased cost for fuel is about Rs.60 per day.In 2006 when petrol was Rs.80
the government grant a subside of Rs.300 per month and did not implement
properly and they just stop it.
The Island, August 21, 2007
Duty relief for four-stroke three-wheelers in next Budget
The Government is planning to offer duty concessions to importers of four-stroke
The Government Information Department said in a press release yesterday that the
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources has taken steps to provide tax
relief in the next Budget to import hazard free vehicles.
Authorities plan to totally ban the import of two-stroke three-wheelers from
January 01, 2008.
The registration of two-stroke three-wheelers by the Commissioner of Motor
vehicles will also be stopped from June 01, 2008.
The import of two-stroke three-wheeler spare parts, excluding the engine and
cylinder head, will also be stopped with effect from January, 2011.
The government has relaxed the ban on the import of spare parts as a total ban
would create unemployment problem in the country as there are about three
hundred thousand two-stroke three-wheelers in use at present.
Lankadeepa, July 02, 2007
Samurdi recipients will receive Rs. 75 kerosene subsidy
Meter three wheeler’s also get subsidy
By Ranjith ananda jayasingha
The government to grant subsidy to samurdi recipient and three wheeler owners’s
to reduce inconvenient to mass.
Kerosene using as a fuel, samurdi recipient family will get Rs. 75 as kerosene
subside says Finance Sectary Dr. P.B.Jayasundara.
The samurdi recipient has to register through grama sevaka and they will receive
it through samurdi.
Meter fixed three wheelers also will get subside, the amount will be considered
after discussing with the Transport ministry.
With this fare meter’s will be promoted to be fixed and ultimately the custom’s
will get the benefits says Dr. Jayasundara.
Lankadeepa, June 13, 2006
President Order higher fuel subsides
Charging method should be display
By Shiyam nuwan ganewatta
President Mahinda Rajapaksha yesterday (12) ordered Finance Ministry to increase
the fuel subsidies for three wheeler owners, so that they would not be affected
by the escalation of oil prices in the local market” says finance ministry
Presently the government paying a subsidy of Rs.300 pre month for a registered
three wheeler owner’s in people’s bank. Under the guidance of the President this
subsides is to increase. The amount would be decided by the Treasury. “This
would be enable the trishaw owner’s to continue charging the exciting fare from
the passenger’s and display of charge would be a added benefit “,says the
Divayina, February 02, 2007
New environment minister ready to talk about two-stroke three-wheeler
By Ajith Premalal
Importing of two-stroke three-wheeler & spare parts banning by the government
would be review with the New Environment Minister Patali Champika Ranawaka says
President of Three Wheeler Driver’s Welfare Association Mr. Lalith Darmasekara
Cabinet has decided to ban two-stroke three-wheeler importing from 2008 and
spare parts from 2011 says the association. “With the present Minister the
Association thinks it could have a dialog and come to a solution. In that
meeting the association would submit its proposals “ Darmasekara said.
February 05, 2007
Regarding vehicles a National Policy Needed
15.01.2007 article appear in lankadeepa I wish to submit my proposals.
Today’s ever increasing population and vehicle the road network is not enough,
without any control vehicle are released to the roads. The government does not
have a national policy; at least did they have an idea?
In this way public to go in the road, to secure the life as a passenger, the
school going child’s safe return all have been restricted.
Because of these murders the family of victim’s must organize and get the claims
and monthly maintains from the accused, fort this law has to be introduced. From
the vehicle accidents
- For every death it should be prosecuted as a murder, the accused must be
responsible for his defense.
- The vehicle in road, mechanical defect must be responsible of the owner and the
drunk, high speed and other reasons must be driver’s responsibility.
- Driver, conductor license must be issued saying the condition of two early
reasons may be his responsibility.
Divayina, February 07, 2007
No hurry to ban two stroke three wheelers – Minister Champika
By Chatura pamunuwa- Kushan subasingha
“Two stroke three wheeler owners do not need to be afraid because government is
in no hurry to ban two stroke three wheelers “newly appointed Environment and
Natural Resource Minister Patali Champika Ranawaka said.
Mr. Ranawaka revel this yesterday (06) joining adjournment motion presented by
UNP MP Dayasiri Jayasekara. “Firstly when Siril Mathew was a minister , imported
40 three wheelers and now after 28 years there are about 2,80,000 in the
country, almost 15,00.000 people are depended on this and the total vehicle
population is about 10% of the country. To ban this it would be a huge problem
“, says Mr. Jayasekara. Colombo district JVP MP Sunil Hadunhetti ; three wheeler
owners do not need only two stroke, bud the government should provided
assistance to convert to four stroke.
Environment minister Patali Champaka Ranawaka; presently there are about 2,
80,000 three wheelers and every year 40,000 are added to this, considerable
amount of population depend on this and 99% of three wheelers are two stroke. Do
not worry about this we should consider people, today four strokes is just
Rs.10, 000 more than two stroke and more durable.
In India, Pakistan, Bangladesh two stroke three wheelers are ban to operate, we
do not want to behave like police, we would like to introduce environment
Lankadeepa, January 05, 2007
Air Polluting Three Wheeler usage will be Banned
Cabinet Paper comes
By vinetha M. gamage
“A cabinet paper to present to ban two stroke three wheeler importing,
manufacturing, and using completely from next year” Environment minister
Maithreepala Sirisena says in press briefing in Mahawali Center.
To reduce the air pollution by usage of two stroke three wheeler this decision
taken says the Minister. “Law does will be introducing allowing only use of four
stroke three wheelers “minister said.
Divayina, November 01, 2006
Charges not reduce! , meters would be compulsory
By Janitha Senaviratna
“Even through the government has reduced the petrol price three wheeler owners
has not reduce the rates because of that fare meters would be compulsory
‘Transport minister Mr.M.H.M.Fawze told to divayina.
There are many complains of that three wheeler owners charge unreasonable rates
from the passengers. In most areas the minimum charge has move up to Rs.30 or
Rs.40, particular in Colombo it has move up to Rs.50 or Rs.60. But the
expenditure is about Rs.05 or Rs.06 pre kilometer. The government aim is to
reduce the charges to previous rates.
Lankadeepa, November 21, 2006
Three wheeler drivers are Assets for Security
By Ruwani devika
“Particular in Piliyandala area and generally for all over the country three
wheeler drivers are an asset for security “senior superintend of police K.
To curb crimes, other anti social activities and protect peace, over 500 three
wheeler drivers in and around Piliyandala participated in the security committee
meeting held in Piliyandala.
In this meeting Piliyandala OIC senior IP W.K. Lionel and officers participated,
Western Province Intelligent Division SI K.K.S. Kumarasiri organized this
The Sunday Leader
April 23, 2006
Suggestion to fix meters to three wheelers
A SUGGESTION by the public to have taximeters fixed on three wheelers has taken
a back seat as the government has no provision to request three wheeler drivers
to do so.
Even though three wheelers come under the transport Ministry the minister and
the government have no authority to make it compulsory for taximeters on three
wheelers according to the law.
Speaking to the The Sunday Leader Railways and Transport Minister A.H.M.Fawzie
said a decision to fix taximeters on three wheelers was never discussed by the
Meanwhile the All Island Three Wheeler Driver’s Welfare Association (AITWDWA)
has taken a decision to fix taximeters on their three wheelers in order to
prevent unnecessary arguments with passengers. “We have 25 taximeters already
fixed on our three wheelers. These three wheelers run in Kollupitikya,
Bamballapitiya, Slave Island, Wellawatte, Kotahene, Modara and areas within the
Colombo city limits.” President AITWDWA M.J.Abdul Hameed said.
According to Hameed the government cannot force three wheeler drivers to fix
taximeters, as they have never provided three wheeler drivers with loan schemes
or concessionary rate to purchase spare parts.
THE ISLAND 1st February, 2005
THREE WHEELERS CARRY METERS FROM TODAY
Three wheerlers will be fitted with fare meters with effect from today.
President of the Srilanka Three Wheeler Taxi Drivers Association, Lalith
Darmasekara said it would initially be on an experimental basis without waiting
for the government to enforce the use taxi fare meters which went out of vogue
some years back with the introduction of this cheaper mode of transport.
There are about 200,000 three wheel taxis in the country.
Darmasekara said about four years ago a private sector company had imported
digitalized taximeter from India and conducted a research on their use.
This was done especially in view of the fact that passengers often were found to
be making complaints that some three wheel taxi drivers were charging exorbitant
He said during the test run of the meters it was proposed to charge 25 rupees
for the first kilometer and 20 rupees for each additional kilometer. He also
said it was proposed to charge Rs.1.50 per minute for any waiting required by
the passengers in route.
Darmasekara said the meters to be used by the association members were those
which had been tested by the importer and were tamer proof.
THE SUNDAY LEADER
JULY 20, 2003
Three wheeler drivers in PR drive
By Marianne David
SOME take it upon themselves to move mountains. And that is exactly what Lalith
Vithanage is trying to do. Chairman, Sri Lanka Three Wheeler Drivers Association
and a three wheeler driver him self, he is trying to change the public
perception of three wheeler drivers with a new public relation (PR) drive.
“Society does not accept us properly. There is a myth that three wheeler drivers
are thugs and it is unsafe to travel in three wheelers but this is only a myth.
It affects our work,” said vithanage.
People do not respect what they do, says Vithanage, adding that three wheeler
drivers are providing a much needed service despite hardships. “But the service
we provide is not appreciated at all.”
The organization’s aim is “to preserve the three wheeler hiring service by being
disciplined drivers for the benefit of our commuters and ourselves.”
Vithanage says that three wheeler drivers do not have nay job security. The
three wheeler stands are often illegal and three is no organization to look into
their matters. There is no orderliness in the entire system, he stressed.
“As a result, the driver has no confidence in his job.”
There being no public or private organization to make sure the three wheeler
service is provided in an orderly manner or to control this service in any way
is a big problem, says Vithange.
Only negative aspects highlighted
“People think badly of three wheeler drivers. They treat you well until they
find out what you do and then most of them change. You can just see it happen.
We are basically trying to provide for our families, do something for this
society and live in a good way,” he said.
Even children are ashamed to admit it if their fathers are three wheelers
drivers, says Vithanage, adding that he experiences this problem as a father.
“For example, I spoke out at the last parent-teacher meeting at my child’s
school and the authorities had looked into what I do because my views, though
correct, did not coincide with theirs. My child was very upset about this but I
explained that all I did was speak out on school problems and there was no need
to be ashamed of what I do.”
Vithange observes that media has never addressed their problems. He complains
that only the bad things that happen are highlighted while the good is
over-looked. “For example, if there are 100,000 three wheelers on the road each
day and all of these go no five hires, that would be 500,000 three wheelers
hires in a day. Of this three could sometimes be a very small number of bad
incidents and they are highlighted in a big way. There is a very small risk
margin but people don’t know this because the media projects three wheelers in a
bad way. It is very safe to travel in three wheelers even at night. Vithange
says that although the media highlights reports of three wheeler drivers who are
charged with wrongdoing, they do not highlight the same issue if the driver is
cleared of all charges. “As a result the public thinks very badly of us. They
think we do more bad than good.”
To change this negative public perception of three wheeler drivers, the
association is in the process of giving a totally new look to the entire
service. A standard uniform, three wheeler driver’s identity card and an
identification sticker for the three wheeler itself are some of the steps that
are being presently introduced.
“The first thing is, three wheeler drivers must be easily identifiable as three
wheeler drivers. Right now they have no way of proving that this is what they
do. For this, they must have proper identification stating who they are and
which area they operate in. The same should be given for their three wheeler in
the form of a sticker stating from where the three wheeler operates and other
such information.” Said Vitahanage.
To inspire confidence in the passengers, all the three wheeler must have a
prominent sign attached to the back of the driver’s seat stating personal
details with a color picture and telephone numbers, said Vithanage. “That way,
the passenger feels more confident. In fact, the Register of Motor Vehicles
wants to make this compulsory.”
Each police area will have a Three Wheeler Drivers Association Branch to look
into the problems in the area, which will in turn report to main organization,
Speaking about three wheeler drivers being indiscipline on the roads, Vithanaga,
while totally accepting this fact, says that drivers are indiscipline as whole
and not just three wheeler drivers.
However, in order to address this issue, the organization is also conducting
seminars for three wheeler drivers on how to drive, amongst various other
topics, in order to educate them.
“There are many three wheeler drivers who do not behave well but through this
organization we are hoping to change this.” He said. The organization aims to
give at cards recording participation at the end of each seminar as well, said
“These cards will be helpful to the driver and will also have important
telephone numbers on the other side such as that of the police, Fraud
Investigation Bureau and Bribery Commission. This way we can curb crime,” he
The organization has chosen as its uniform a shirt with ‘national’ collar, which
could be in any color. Although it is not compulsory, the organization hopes
that three wheeler drivers will start wearing this to show that they too are
committed to making a carrier. Already the three wheeler drivers near National
Hospital, Majestic City, Colombo Plaza, Galadari and some places in Pettah are
wearing this and we hope it spreads everywhere.”
As for extortion rackets, Vithanage says that while three wheeler drivers in
Colombo have not been subject to this type of things, the organization has
received reports of this happening in the outstations.
The organization was formed because of Colombo DIG, Bodi Liyanage and the
attention he paid to the troubles faced by three wheeler drivers, says
Being a three wheeler driver is not a bad life says Secretary of the
organization, Tissa Abeywickrama. “We are not debt to anyone and we are able to
provide for our families. Fuel prices keep fluctuating but the hire prices stay
same. We even do a lot of social service such as help sick. For example, if
there is a bomb blast, it is the three wheelers that rush the injured to
hospitals, but we don’t charge anything for doing this.”